The role of women as elders and leaders in the Church has engendered so much controversy since the immediate post-Apostolic period. The dispute as to whether women can be legitimately ordained into the five-fold ministry has generated a lot of heat over the years, especially since the rise of the feminist movement, which demands equal representation for women in all spheres of life. The Church is thus torn between the orthodox wing, which insists on keeping women away from the pulpit, and the progressives, who see no reason why women should not be ordained into the five-fold ministry of Apostles, Prophets, Evangelists, Pastors and Teachers.
The aim of this article is to unveil the Apostolic position on the issue of female ordination into the five-fold ministry, so that believers can have a solid scriptural footing on this contentious and visceral topic that is threatening to tear the Church apart.
As a starting point, let it be quickly stated here that the teachings and writings of the original Apostles of the Lord Jesus Christ provide the foundational basis of Christianity.
St. Matthew 28:18 Jesus came to them and spoke to them, saying, “All authority has been given to me in heaven and on earth.
St. Matthew 28:19 Go, and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit,
St. Matthew 28:20 teaching them to observe all things that I commanded you. Behold, I am with you always, even to the end of the age.” Amen.
Ephesians 2:19 so then you are no longer strangers and foreigners, but you are fellow citizens with the saints, and of the household of God,
Ephesians 2:20 being built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Christ Jesus himself being the chief cornerstone.
Ephesians 3:2 if it is so that you have heard of the administration of that grace of God which was given me toward you;
Ephesians 3:3 how that by revelation the mystery was made known to me, as I wrote before in few words,
Ephesians 3:4 by which, when you read, you can perceive my understanding in the mystery of Christ;
Ephesians 3:5 which in other generations was not made known to the children of men, as it has now been revealed to his holy apostles and prophets in the Spirit;
Ephesians 3:6 that the Gentiles are fellow heirs, and fellow members of the body, and fellow partakers of his promise in Christ Jesus through the Good News.
1 Corinthians 3:10 According to the grace of God which was given to me, as a wise master builder I laid a foundation, and another builds on it. But let each man be careful how he builds on it.
1 Corinthians 3:11 for no one can lay any other foundation than that which has been laid, which is Jesus Christ.
Not only were the original Apostles of the Lord the foundation of the Christian faith, their teachings and the Gospel they preached are not to be modified or altered by anyone. The Apostolic teachings are to be handed down, unchanged, from generation to generation, irrespective of changes in human society, as the Gospel is the eternal word of God which abides forever.
Galatians 1:6 I marvel that you are so soon removed from him that called you into the grace of Christ to another gospel:
Galatians 1:7 which is not another; but there be some that trouble you, and would pervert the gospel of Christ.
Galatians 1:8 but though we, or an angel from heaven, preach any other gospel to you than that which we have preached to you, let him be accursed.
Galatians 1:9 As we said before, so say I now again, if any man preach any other gospel to you than that you have received, let him be accursed.
2 Timothy 2:2 the things which you have heard from me among many witnesses, commit the same to faithful men, who will be able to teach others also.
It is instructive to note that, any attempt to alter the teachings of the original Apostles of the Lord is seen as perverting the Gospel of Christ and troubling the Church thereby, and all those involved in such corruptions of the Gospel are accursed. It’s pretty serious then to tinker or adjust the Apostolic teachings to suit changes in human culture. The brutal message here is that, the Gospel is not subject to generational or cultural changes in human society. It is as constant and as unchangeable as God himself, since the Word of God is God!
John 1:1 in the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.
Hebrews 13:8 Jesus Christ the same yesterday, and today, and forever.
Jesus Christ does not change! Therefore, his Gospel does not change. Christians are not to conform to the fashions of an ever changing world, but are to change the world by the unchanging Word of God.
Romans 12:2 Don’t be conformed to this world, but be transformed by the renewing of your mind, so that you may prove what is the good, well-pleasing, and perfect will of God.
Now, having established the unchanging Apostolic teachings and writings as the basis and guiding principles of Christianity, let us look at the writings of the original Apostles of the Lord, to find the scriptural view on the position of women in the Church, in relation to the five-fold ministry and leadership.
1 Corinthians 14:34 Let your women keep silence in the churches: for it is not permitted to them to speak; but they are commanded to be under obedience as also said the law.
1 Corinthians 14:35 and if they will learn anything, let them ask their husbands at home: for it is a shame for women to speak in the church.
1 Corinthians 14:36 What? Came the word of God out from you? Or came it to you only?
1 Corinthians 14:37 If any man think himself to be a prophet, or spiritual, let him acknowledge that the things that I write to you are the commandments of the Lord.
1 Corinthians 14:38 But if any man be ignorant, let him be ignorant.
Paul, the Apostle to the Gentiles, expressly forbade women speaking in the Church. He stated clearly and unambiguously that it was shameful and reproachful for women to speak in the Church. This was not Paul’s personal opinion, as some people often say, nor was it because of the incessant chattering of the Corinthian women while in Church. Paul made it abundantly clear that what he was writing was the commandment of the Lord for all Churches of the Saints (verses 34 & 38)! And he went on to say that any true prophet or spiritual person should acknowledge that what he wrote was the commandment of the Lord. This means that, whoever disagrees with this teaching of Paul and acts contrary to it, is neither truly spiritual nor a true prophet of God. It’s that simple! Why is this so? That’s because the Gospel Paul preached was specially revealed to him by the Lord Jesus himself. No man taught Paul the Gospel! He received it as a direct revelation from the Lord Jesus Christ.
Galatians 1:11 But I certify you, brothers, that the gospel which was preached of me is not after man.
Galatians 1:12 for I neither received it of man, neither was I taught it, but by the revelation of Jesus Christ.
1 Corinthians 11:23 (a) For I have received of the Lord that which also I delivered to you.
Because the Apostle Paul was only transmitting what he received from the Lord Jesus Christ, to argue with Paul’s teachings is to argue with Jesus Christ himself. To reject Paul’s teachings is to reject the teachings of Christ. It’s as simple as that!
John 13:20 Truly, truly, I say to you, He that receives whomsoever I send receives me; and he that receives me receives him that sent me.
To receive the teaching of an Apostle of Christ is to receive the teaching of Christ. Conversely, to reject the teachings of an Apostle of Christ is to reject Christ’s teaching.
Let us look at another of Paul’s letter, to shed more light on the issue of female leadership in the Church.
1 Timothy 2:11 let a woman learn in quietness with all subjection.
1 Timothy 2:12 But I don’t permit a woman to teach, nor to exercise authority over a man, but to be in quietness.
1 Timothy 2:13 For Adam was first formed, then Eve.
1 Timothy 2:14 Adam wasn’t deceived, but the woman, being deceived, has fallen into disobedience.
Paul further expounded the scriptural views on the position of women in the Church by forbidding women from teaching or exercising authority over men in the Church. Women are not only to be silent in the Church, they are also not to teach or exercise authority over men. Paul used the creation order to justify this position: the man was first formed before the woman, and thus by the creation order is her head. The woman was made for man (to be man’s helper), and not man for the woman!
1 Corinthians 11:8 for man is not from woman, but woman from man;
1 Corinthians 11:9 for neither was man created for the woman, but woman for the man.
The subordination of the woman to the man is shown everywhere in Scripture, from the very beginning in Genesis.
Genesis 3:16 to the woman he said, “I will greatly multiply your pain in childbirth. In pain you will bear children. Your desire will be for your husband, and he will rule over you.”
1 Corinthians 11:3 But I would have you know that the head of every man is Christ, and the head of the woman is the man, and the head of Christ is God.
Ephesians 5:22 Wives, be subject to your own husbands, as to the Lord.
Ephesians 5:23 for the husband is the head of the wife, and Christ also is the head of the assembly, being himself the savior of the body.
Colossians 3:18 Wives, be in subjection to your husbands, as is fitting in the Lord.
1 Peter 3:1 in the same way, wives, be in subjection to your own husbands; so that, even if any don’t obey the Word, they may be won by the behavior of their wives without a word.
Apart from the order of creation, Paul also mentioned another reason why the woman is not to teach or exercise authority over the man: the woman’s greater susceptibility to deception! It was Eve that was deceived by the devil, not Adam. The woman is considered in scripture and in nature as the weaker vessel (1 Peter 3:7). She is much easier to deceive and manipulate than the man. Having been deceived originally by Satan to disobey the Word of God and plunge the human race and the whole of creation into chaos, God has now placed the woman under the headship of the man, and has forbidden her from teaching his Word or exercising authority over men in the Church. That’s God’s decision, which is not subject to human questioning! Ours is to accept and obey his commandments, and not to challenge them.
Romans 9:20 But indeed, O man, who are you to reply against God? Will the thing formed ask him who formed it, “Why did you make me like this?”
Job 40:2 shall he that contends with the Almighty instruct him? He that reproves God, let him answer it.
God in his wisdom has so decreed the position and role of the woman in the home and in the Church. Our responsibility as believers and obedient children is to accept and obey. We should not question our Maker!
Furthermore, if the woman is to be subject to her husband and cannot head or rule her own home, how can she be lawfully expected to rule the Church of God, which is a collection of many different Christian homes? If she cannot exercise authority over her own husband, how can she legitimately exercise authority over other women’s husbands in the Church? Think about this!
To buttress this point further, let’s look at the position of our Lord on this issue, in the choice of his Apostles. It is not a coincidence that out of all the original twelve Apostles of the Lord, there was not a single woman. Jesus had many women who were close to him and who ministered to him during his ministry (Luke 8:2-3; John 11:5). However, when choosing his Apostles, he did not consider any of these women for this leadership ministry in his Church. Jesus was making a statement here, he was setting the pattern for leadership in the Church for everyone to note and follow.
Even after his resurrection, after he had ascended to Heaven and released the gift of the Holy Spirit and the five-fold ministry to the Church, he still did not consider women in the five-fold ministry. He still appointed only men into the leadership ministry of the Church.
Ephesians 4:8 Why he said, When he ascended up on high, he led captivity captive, and gave gifts to men.
Ephesians 4:11 and he gave some, apostles; and some, prophets; and some, evangelists; and some, pastors and teachers.
Note that he gave these gifts to men, not to women!
When the original Apostles of the Lord wanted to fill the vacant position among the Apostles created by the death of Judas, they too, following the examples and teaching of their Lord and Master, excluded women from consideration.
The Acts 1:20 for it is written in the book of Psalms, Let his habitation be desolate, and let no man dwell therein: and his position as bishop let another take.
The Acts 1:21 one of these men which have companied with us all the time that the Lord Jesus went in and out among us,
The Acts 1:22 beginning from the baptism of John, to that same day that he was taken up from us, must one be ordained to be a witness with us of his resurrection.
The Acts 1:23 and they appointed two, Joseph called Barsabas, who was surnamed Justus, and Matthias.
The Acts 1:24 and they prayed, and said, You, Lord, which know the hearts of all men, show whether of these two you have chosen,
The Acts 1:25 That he may take part of this ministry and apostleship, from which Judas by transgression fell, that he might go to his own place.
The Acts 1:26 and they gave forth their lots; and the lot fell on Matthias; and he was numbered with the eleven apostles.
Though they had many women in their company (including Mary the mother of Jesus and Mary Magdalene, who first carried the news of Jesus’ resurrection Acts 1:14), Peter and the rest of the Apostles did not consider any of the women fit for the vacant position of an Apostle, simply because, the position was not for women! Women are not to be leaders and rulers in the house of God! They are to be silent, learn quietly and not exercise authority over men in the Church.
Another way to find out if women are qualified to be ordained into the five-fold ministry is to look at the qualifications people are required to meet before they can be ordained into the preaching ministry. Surely, these qualifications should determine who is fit or unfit for ministry? Again, we turn to the writings of the original Apostles of the Lord, whose teachings form the foundations of the Christian faith.
1 Timothy 3:1 this is a true saying, If a man desire the office of a bishop, he desires a good work.
1 Timothy 3:2 A bishop then must be blameless, the husband of one wife, vigilant, sober, of good behavior, given to hospitality, apt to teach;
1 Timothy 3:3 not given to wine, no striker, not greedy of filthy lucre; but patient, not a brawler, not covetous;
1 Timothy 3:4 One that rules well his own house, having his children in subjection with all gravity;
1 Timothy 3:5 (For if a man know not how to rule his own house, how shall he take care of the church of God?)
1 Timothy 3:6 Not a novice, lest being lifted up with pride he fall into the condemnation of the devil.
1 Timothy 3:7 Moreover he must have a good report of them which are without; lest he fall into reproach and the snare of the devil.
Titus 1:5 for this cause I left you in Crete, that you should set in order the things that are wanting, and ordain elders in every city, as I had appointed you:
Titus 1:6 If any be blameless, the husband of one wife, having faithful children not accused of riot or unruly.
Titus 1:7 for a bishop must be blameless, as the steward of God; not self-willed, not soon angry, not given to wine, no striker, not given to filthy lucre;
Titus 1:8 But a lover of hospitality, a lover of good men, sober, just, holy, temperate;
Titus 1:9 Holding fast the faithful word as he has been taught, that he may be able by sound doctrine both to exhort and to convince the disputers.
As we examine these scriptures closely, we note some salient points. First, the position of bishops or elders is for men, for it says if any man (not woman) desires the office of a bishop, he desires a good work. Next, we are told that a bishop must be the husband of one wife, further buttressing the fact that a bishop has to be a man! Finally, a bishop is required to rule his house well, for if he cannot rule his own house, how can he be expected to rule the Church of God? Now, the woman cannot rule her own house, because she is to be subject to her husband who is to rule over her, as we showed earlier. Therefore, if she cannot rule her own house, she cannot rule the house of God! She cannot be an overseer (a member of the five-fold ministry) because the elders or overseers are rulers of the house of God.
The Acts 20:17 and from Miletus he sent to Ephesus, and called the elders of the church.
The Acts 20:28 Take heed therefore to yourselves, and to all the flock, over which the Holy Ghost has made you overseers, to feed the church of God, which he has purchased with his own blood.
Hebrews 13:7 Remember them which have the rule over you, who have spoken to you the word of God: whose faith follow, considering the end of their conversation.
Hebrews 13:17 obey them that have the rule over you, and submit yourselves: for they watch for your souls, as they that must give account, that they may do it with joy, and not with grief: for that is unprofitable for you.
Hebrews 13:24 Salute all them that have the rule over you, and all the saints. They of Italy salute you.
1 Peter 5:1 the elders which are among you I exhort, who am also an elder, and a witness of the sufferings of Christ, and also a partaker of the glory that shall be revealed:
1 Peter 5:2 feed the flock of God which is among you, taking the oversight thereof, not by constraint, but willingly; not for filthy lucre, but of a ready mind;
1 Peter 5:3 neither as being lords over God’s heritage, but being ensamples to the flock.
To be an elder or bishop in the Church, to be a member of the five-fold preaching ministry (Apostles, Prophets, Evangelists, Pastors and Teachers) is to rule over the house of God. It is to oversee the house of God and take oversight of it. A woman who is forbidden to rule over her own husband or oversee her own home cannot be legitimately expected to rule over the house of God. This is an error and an abomination!
Even the positions of deacons, the administrative elders in the Church, was not made open to women by the original Apostles of the Lord.
The Acts 6:2 then the twelve called the multitude of the disciples to them, and said, It is not reason that we should leave the word of God, and serve tables.
The Acts 6:3 why, brothers, look you out among you seven men of honest report, full of the Holy Ghost and wisdom, whom we may appoint over this business.
The Acts 6:4 But we will give ourselves continually to prayer, and to the ministry of the word.
The Acts 6:5 and the saying pleased the whole multitude: and they chose Stephen, a man full of faith and of the Holy Ghost, and Philip, and Prochorus, and Nicanor, and Timon, and Parmenas, and Nicolas a proselyte of Antioch:
The Acts 6:6 whom they set before the apostles: and when they had prayed, they laid their hands on them.
1 Timothy 3:8 Likewise must the deacons be grave, not double-tongued, not given to much wine, not greedy of filthy lucre;
1 Timothy 3:9 holding the mystery of the faith in a pure conscience.
1 Timothy 3:10 and let these also first be proved; then let them use the office of a deacon, being found blameless.
1 Timothy 3:11 Even so must their wives be grave, not slanderers, sober, faithful in all things.
1 Timothy 3:12 let the deacons be the husbands of one wife, ruling their children and their own houses well.
1 Timothy 3:13 For they that have used the office of a deacon well purchase to themselves a good degree, and great boldness in the faith which is in Christ Jesus.
The deacons, who are to assist the bishops in the administration of the Church, are to be men also, not women, as shown by the teachings and Epistles of the original Apostles of the Lord. Only men can be appointed deacons, as we saw in the qualifications given by both the original twelve Apostles of the Lord (Choose seven men…) and by Paul, the Apostle to the Gentiles (husband of one wife…). Church administration and leadership are not for women. They are sole prerogatives of men, as shown by the teachings and writings of the original Apostles of the Lord, on whose foundation the Church is built.
Let me clarify some issues here. Women can pray, worship, sing, and prophesy in the Church. Both in the Old and New Testaments, we have records of prophetesses whom God used mightily to bless his people. And in the Church today and until Christ returns, the gift of prophecy will continue to be poured out on both men and women for the edification, comfort and exhortation of the Church (Act 2:16-18; Act 21:8-9; 1Cor 11:5). A woman can be a prophetess, but she is not to be an overseer or ruler over the house of God, and she is not to teach or exercise authority over men in the Church. To prophesy is not the same as to teach and exercise dominion or control.
In the Old Testament, even though we had female prophets (Miriam, Deborah, Huldah, etc), it is instructive to note that there were no female priests. The priesthood, which is the equivalent of the pastoral ministry of today, was an exclusive preserve of the sons of Aaron. Even the Levites, who assisted the sons of Aaron in the priesthood (the equivalent of the deacons), were all men.
Numbers 3:10 and you shall appoint Aaron and his sons, and they shall wait on their priest’s office: and the stranger that comes near shall be put to death.
1 Chronicles 6:49 But Aaron and his sons offered on the altar of the burnt offering, and on the altar of incense, and were appointed for all the work of the place most holy, and to make an atonement for Israel, according to all that Moses the servant of God had commanded.
The priests in the Old Testament were the ones who ruled over the house of God and taught the people the law and the precepts of God. And there was no female in their ranks. Only Aaron and his sons were appointed into the Priesthood. The prophets and prophetesses brought the inspired revelation of God to Israel, but it was Aaron and his sons, assisted by the male Levites, that ministered in God’s temple, offered the sacrifices for the sins of the people and stood in the gap between God and the people. It was the priests (males), assisted by the Levites (males), that taught the people the law and administered the house of God.
Deuteronomy 17:8 If there arise a matter too hard for you in judgment, between blood and blood, between plea and plea, and between stroke and stroke, being matters of controversy within your gates: then shall you arise, and get you up into the place which the LORD your God shall choose;
Deuteronomy 17:9 and you shall come to the priests the Levites, and to the judge that shall be in those days, and inquire; and they shall show you the sentence of judgment:
Deuteronomy 17:10 and you shall do according to the sentence, which they of that place which the LORD shall choose shall show you; and you shall observe to do according to all that they inform you:
Deuteronomy 17:11 According to the sentence of the law which they shall teach you, and according to the judgment which they shall tell you, you shall do: you shall not decline from the sentence which they shall show you, to the right hand, nor to the left.
Deuteronomy 17:12 And the man that will do presumptuously, and will not listen to the priest that stands to minister there before the LORD your God, or to the judge, even that man shall die: and you shall put away the evil from Israel.
Deuteronomy 33:8 And of Levi he said, Let your Thummim and your Urim be with your holy one, whom you did prove at Massah, and with whom you did strive at the waters of Meribah;
Deuteronomy 33:9 who said to his father and to his mother, I have not seen him; neither did he acknowledge his brothers, nor knew his own children: for they have observed your word, and kept your covenant.
Deuteronomy 33:10 they shall teach Jacob your judgments, and Israel your law: they shall put incense before you, and whole burnt sacrifice on your altar.
As we can plainly see from the above scriptures, the teaching ministry of the law, as well as the rulership of the house of God in the Old Testament belonged to the Priests, Aaron and his sons, who were to be assisted by the male Levites. God has never allowed women to teach and exercise authority over men in his house. Not in the Old Testament, and certainly not in the New Testament!
Most people who support female ordination into the preaching ministry quote Galatians 3:28 as sufficient scriptural backing for their practice:
Galatians 3:28 there is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither bond nor free, there is neither male nor female: for you are all one in Christ Jesus.
Taking that one verse of scripture at face value and out of context, it would seem God does not recognize any difference between the sexes, and as such, either sex can lead the home and the Church. This argument flies in the face of countless scriptures that distinguish between the sexes anatomically, emotionally and ministerially. But, let us look at that verse of scripture in context.
Galatians 3:22 But the scripture has concluded all under sin, that the promise by faith of Jesus Christ might be given to them that believe.
Galatians 3:23 But before faith came, we were kept under the law, shut up to the faith which should afterwards be revealed.
Galatians 3:24 Why the law was our schoolmaster to bring us to Christ, that we might be justified by faith.
Galatians 3:25 But after that faith is come, we are no longer under a schoolmaster.
Galatians 3:26 for you are all the children of God by faith in Christ Jesus.
Galatians 3:27 for as many of you as have been baptized into Christ have put on Christ.
Galatians 3:28 there is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither bond nor free, there is neither male nor female: for you are all one in Christ Jesus.
Galatians 3:29 and if you be Christ’s, then are you Abraham’s seed, and heirs according to the promise.
Looking at that scripture in context, we come to understand the Apostle Paul was trying to make the point that in salvation, God does not discriminate against anyone based on tribe (Jew or Greek), social standing (freeborn or slave), or sex (male or female). Anyone who has faith in Christ will be saved, irrespective of race, social standing or sex, for whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved.
Romans 10:11 for the scripture said, whoever believes on him shall not be ashamed.
Romans 10:12 for there is no difference between the Jew and the Greek: for the same Lord over all is rich to all that call on him.
Romans 10:13 for whoever shall call on the name of the Lord shall be saved.
As can be seen here, Galatians 3:28 simply means God will save anyone who puts their faith in him, without discriminating with respect to race, social standing or sex. It doesn’t mean after being saved, a Jew stops being a Jew or a Greek ceases to be a Greek. It does not mean there is no more a distinction in the role of the sexes at home and in the Church.
I will like to mention one final issue on this topic. People who support the ordination of women into the eldership ministry of the Church always look back to the prophetess Deborah, who was a judge, and mention her as an example of a woman leader in the Old Testament Church. Let us carefully examine the ministry of Deborah. Deborah was a prophetess who judged Israel in a way that was different from all the other judges of Israel. Unlike the others who were more or less military leaders that led the people in wars of liberation from their oppressors, Deborah judged Israel by her prophetic gift. She would hear from God and solve disputes or answer the people’s questions through her prophetic ability to hear from God. That’s essentially what every prophet does!
Judges 4:4 And Deborah, a prophetess, the wife of Lapidoth, she judged Israel at that time.
Judges 4:5 and she dwelled under the palm tree of Deborah between Ramah and Bethel in mount Ephraim: and the children of Israel came up to her for judgment.
Judges 4:6 And she sent and called Barak the son of Abinoam out of Kedeshnaphtali, and said to him, Has not the LORD God of Israel commanded, saying, Go and draw toward mount Tabor, and take with you ten thousand men of the children of Naphtali and of the children of Zebulun?
Judges 4:7 And I will draw to you to the river Kishon Sisera, the captain of Jabin’s army, with his chariots and his multitude; and I will deliver him into your hand.
Deborah never commanded or led the Army of Israel to war. It was Barak who commanded the Army. Deborah only played her role as a prophetess who brought messages from the Lord to exhort, encourage and comfort the people, either by fore-telling (predicting a future event), or by forth-telling (revealing things in the past or in the present). This is still what every New Testament prophet or prophetess is expected to do. Despite being a wonderful prophetess and a courageous mother in Israel, Deborah was neither a priest nor the commander of the Lord’s Army. She was not a leader in the temple, and she did not serve in the temple. She could not offer the sacrifices which only the priests, the sons of Aaron, were mandated to offer; and she could not teach the law to the people, which only the priests, the sons of Aaron were empowered by Law to do.
Deborah was a prophetess, a wife and a mother, but not a priest or an army commander! Because Deborah was not a priest (the equivalent of today’s pastors), she could not minister at the altar in the temple of the Lord. She could not enter the holy of holies which only the high priest could lawfully do. So, Deborah’s prophetic ministry cannot be used to justify ordination of women into the eldership ministry of the New Testament Church.
In conclusion, the Apostolic writings and teachings constitute the rule of faith and the basis for doctrines in the New Testament Church. With regards to the Apostolic writings, there is no place for the ordination of women into the five-fold ministry, which is the exclusive preserve of men. The Christian women are to be silent in the Churches, abstain from teaching and refrain from exercising authority over men. The women are to be in subjection, at home and in the Church. Any teaching that opposes this Apostolic view is unbiblical, null and void, and amounts to perversion of the Gospel and a falling away from the faith.